Experimental Science of Human Motivations and Relations


McGregor, I., Newby-Clark, I. R., & Zanna, M. P. (2019). Dissonance now: How accessible discrepancies moderate distress                     and diverse defenses. In Cognitive dissonance: Re-examining a pivotal theory in psychology, 2nd ed. (pp. 117-138).                   American Psychological Association.

Alquist, J. L., Baumeister, R. F., McGregor, I., Core, T. J., Benjamin, I., & Tice, D. M. (2018). Personal conflict impairs                                   performance on an unrelated self-control task: Lingering costs of uncertainty and conflict. Journal of Experimental                   Social Psychology, 74, 157-160. [pdf]

Elnakouri, A., McGregor, I., & Grossmann, I. (2018). The importance of environmental threats and ideology in explaining                       extreme self-sacrifice. Behavioral and Brain Sciences41, E201.

Xu, X., & McGregor, I. (2018). Motivation, Threat, and Defense: Perspective From Experimental Social                                                          Psychology. Psychological Inquiry29(1), 32-37.

Eftekhari, E., Tran, A., & McGregor, I. (2017). Decentering increases approach motivation among distressed individuals.                         Personality and Individual Differences, 119, 236-241. [pdf]       

Hayes, J., Prentice, M., & McGregor, I. (2017). Giving in and giving up: Accommodation and fatalistic withdrawal as                                 alternatives to primary control restoration. In M. Bukowski, I. Fritsche, A. Guinote, & M. Kofta (Eds.). Coping with Lack               of Control in a Social World (pp. 116-132). Routledge: Psychology Press.

Huynh, A. C., Oakes, H., Shay, G. R., & McGregor, I. (2017). The wisdom in virtue: Pursuit of virtue predicts wise reasoning                     about personal conflicts. Psychological Science, 28(12), 1848-1856. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797617722621. [pdf

Hayes, J., Ward, C., & McGregor, I. (2016). Why bother? Death, failure, and fatalistic withdrawal from life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110, 96-115[pdf]

McGregor, I., Hayes, J., Prentice, M. (2015). Motivation for aggressive religious radicalization: goal regulation theory and a personality × threat × affordance hypothesis. Frontiers in Psychology​, 6, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01325. [pdf]

Van den Bos, K., McGregor, I., & Martin, L. (2015). Security and uncertainty in contemporary delayed-return cultures: Coping with the blockage of personal goals. In A. L. Wichman, P. J. Carroll, & R. M. Arkin (Eds.), Handbook of psychological security (pp. 21-35). New York: Psychology Press.

​*Jonas, E., *McGregor, I., Klackl, J., Agroskin, D., Fritsche, I., Holdbrook, C., Nash, K., Proulx, T., & Quirin, M. (2014). Threat and defense: From anxiety to approach. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 219-286.  * Shared first authorship. [pdf]

​Prentice, M., & McGregor, I. (2014). Anxiety and the approach of idealistic meaning. In P. R. Netzer & A. Batthyany (Eds.). Meaning in existential and positive psychology. Springer. [pdf]

​Schumann, K., McGregor, I., Nash, K., & Ross, M. (2014). Religious magnanimity: Reminding people of their religious belief system reduces hostility after threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107 (3), 432. [pdf]

Nash, K., Prentice, M., Hirsh, J., McGregor, I., & Inzlicht, M. (2013). Muted neural response to distress among securely attached people. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, published online July 24, 2013. doi:10.1093/scan/nst099.[pdf]

​McGregor, I., Nail, P. R., Kocalar, D., & Haji, R. (2013). I’m OK, I’m OK: Praise makes narcissists with low implicit self-esteem indifferent to the suffering of others. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 655-659. [pdf]

​McGregor, I., Prentice, M., & Nash, K. (2013). Anxious uncertainty and reactive approach motivation (RAM) for religious, idealistic, and lifestyle extremes. Journal of Social Issues69, 537-563. [pdf]

​Tullett, A. M., Prentice, M., Teper, R., Nash, K., Inzlicht, M., & McGregor, I. (2013). Neural and motivational mechanics of meaning and threat. In K. Markman, T. Proulx, & M. J. Lindberg (Eds.). The psychology of meaning (pp. 401-419). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. [pdf]

​Nash, K., Inzlicht, M., & McGregor, I. (2012). Approach-related left prefrontal EEG asymmetry predicts muted error-related negativity. Biological Psychology, 91, 96-102. [pdf]

McGregor, I., Prentice, M., & Nash, K. (2012). Approaching relief: Compensatory ideals relieve threat-induced anxiety by promoting approach-motivated states. Social Cognition30(6), 689-714. [pdf]

McGregor, I., Nash, K., & Prentice, M. (2012). Religious zeal after goal frustration. In M. A. Hogg & D. L. Blaylock (Eds.). Extremism and the psychology of uncertainty (pp. 147-164). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. [pdf]

Nash, K., McGregor, I., & Prentice, M. (2011). Threat and defense as goal regulation: From implicit goal-conflict to anxious uncertainty, reactive approach motivation (RAM), and ideological extremism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 1291-1301. [pdf]​

Nash, K., McGregor, I., & Inzlicht, M. (2010). Line bisection as a neural marker of approach motivation. Psychophysiology, 47,979-983. [pdf]

McGregor, I. Nash, K., & Mann, N., & Phills, C. E. (2010). Anxious uncertainty and reactive approach motivation (RAM). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 133-147. [pdf]

McGregor, I., Nash, K., & Prentice, M. (2010). Reactive approach motivation (RAM) for religion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 148-161. [pdf]

Kay, A. C., Gaucher, D., McGregor, I., & Nash, K. (2010). Religious belief as compensatory control. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14, 37-48. [pdf]

Marigold, D. C., McGregor, I., & Zanna, M. P. (2010). Defensive conviction as emotion regulation: Goal mechanisms and relationship implications. In R. M. Arkin, K. C. Oleson, & P. J. Carroll (Eds.). The Uncertain Self: A Handbook of Perspectives from Social and Personality Psychology (pp. 232-248). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

McGregor, I. (2010). Ambivalence. In I. Weiner & E. Craighead (Eds.). Corsini’s Encyclopedia of Psychology, 4th Edition (Vol. 1, pp. 74-76). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley

McGregor, I. (2010). Extremism. In I. Weiner & E. Craighead (Eds.). Corsini’s Encyclopedia of Psychology, 4th Edition (Vol. 2, pp. 628-629). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley

Randles, D., Flett, G. L., Nash, K., McGregor, I., Hewitt, P. L. (2010). Dimensions of perfectionism, behavioral inhibition, and rumination. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 83-87.[pdf]

Inzlicht, M., McGregor, I., Hirsh, J. B., Nash, K. (2009). Neural markers of religious conviction. Psychological Science, 20, 385-392. [pdf]

McGregor, I., Nash, K., & Inzlicht, M. (2009). Threat, high self-esteem, and reactive approach motivation: Electroencephalographic evidence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 1003-1007. [pdf]

McGregor, I., Prentice, M., & Nash, K. (2009). Personal uncertainty management by reactive approach motivation. Psychological Inquiry, 20, 225-229. [pdf]

Nail, P.R. & McGregor, I. (2009). Conservative shift among liberals and conservatives following 9/11/01. Social Justice Research, 22, 231-240. [pdf]

Nail, P.R., McGregor, I., Drinkwater, A., Steele, G., & Thompson, A. (2009). Threat causes liberals to think like conservatives. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 901-907. [pdf]

Schmeichel, B. J., Gailliot, M. T., Filardo, E-A., McGregor, I., Gitter, S., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). Terror management theory and self-esteem revisited: The roles of implicit and explicit self-esteem in mortality salience effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology96, 1077-1087. [pdf]

McGregor, I., Haji, R., & Kang, S-J. (2008). Can ingroup affirmation relieve outgroup derogation? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1395-1401. [pdf]

McGregor, I., Haji, R., Nash, K., & Teper, R. (2008). Religious zeal and the uncertain self. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 30, 183-188. [pdf]

McGregor, I. (2007). Personal projects as compensatory convictions: Passionate pursuit and the fugitive self. In B. R. Little, K. Salmela-Aro & S. D. Phillips (Eds.), Personal project pursuit: Goals, action and human flourishing (pp. 171-195). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [pdf]

McGregor, I. (2007). Zeal. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Social Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 1017-1018). Newbury Park: Sage.

McGregor, I., Gailliot, M. T., Vasquez, N., Nash, K. (2007). Ideological and personal zeal reactions to threat among people with high self-esteem: Motivated promotion focus. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 1587-1599. [pdf]

McGregor, I. & Jordan, C. H. (2007). The mask of zeal: Low implicit self-esteem, and defensive extremism after self-threat. Self and Identity, 6, 223-237. [pdf]

McGregor, I. (2006). Offensive defensiveness: Toward an integrative neuroscience of compensatory zeal after mortality salience, personal uncertainty, and other poignant self-threats. Psychological Inquiry, 17, 299-308. [pdf]

McGregor, I. (2006). Zeal appeal: The allure of moral extremes. Basic and Applied Social Psychology28, 343-348. [pdf]

McGregor, I., McAdams, D. P., & Little, B. R. (2006). Personal projects, life stories, and happiness: On being true to traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 551-572. [pdf]

McGregor, I., Nail, P. R., Marigold, D. C., & Kang, S-J. (2005). Defensive pride and consensus: Strength in imaginary numbers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 978-996. [pdf]

Newby-Clark, I. R., McGregor, I., & Zanna, M. P. (2005). Ambivalence and accessibility: The consequences of accessible ambivalence. In S. C. Craig & M. D. Martinez (Eds.), Ambivalence and the structure of political opinion (pp. 33-54). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

McGregor, I. (2004). Zeal, identity, and meaning: Going to extremes to be one self. In J. Greenberg, S. L. Koole, & T. Pyszczynski (Eds.), Handbook of Experimental Existential Psychology (pp. 182-199). New York: Guilford.

McGregor, I. (2003). Defensive zeal: Compensatory conviction about attitudes, values, goals, groups, and self-definition in the face of personal uncertainty. In S. Spencer, S. Fein, & M. Zanna (Eds.), Motivated social perception: The Ontario Symposium (Vol. 9, pp. 73-92). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. [pdf]

McGregor, I. & Marigold, D. C. (2003). Defensive zeal and the uncertain self: What makes you so sure? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 838-852. [pdf]

Newby-Clark, I. R., McGregor, I., & Zanna, M. P. (2002). Thinking and caring about cognitive inconsistency: When and for whom does attitudinal ambivalence feel uncomfortable? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 157-166. [pdf]

McGregor, I., Zanna, M. P., Holmes, J. G., & Spencer, S. J. (2001). Compensatory conviction in the face of personal uncertainty: Going to extremes and being oneself. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 472–488. [pdf]

McGregor, I., Newby-Clark, I.R., & Zanna, M.P. (1999). "Remembering" dissonance: Simultaneous accessibility of inconsistent cognitive elements moderates epistemic discomfort . In E. Harmon-Jones & J. Mills (Eds.), Cognitive dissonance: Perspectives on a pivotal theory in Social Psychology (pp. 325-353). Washington, DC: APA. [pdf]

McGregor, I. & Holmes, J.G. (1999). How storytelling shapes memory and impressions of relationship events over time. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 403-419. [pdf]

McGregor, I. & Little, B.R. (1998). Personal projects, happiness, and meaning: On doing well and being yourself. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 494-512. [pdf]